IMMUNOTEC MEDICAL PUBLICATIONS 2


ANTICANCER RESEARCH 24: 553-554 (2004)
26- MOLECULAR PATHOGENESIS AND PREVENTION OF PROSTATE CANCER
G. Bounous, D. Beer


ABSTRACT – Studies in laboratory animals indicate inhibition of chemically-induced carcinoma by cystine-rich diets enhancing the cysteine-GSH antioxidant system. The progression of carcinoma of the prostate is also inhibited by these diets, which were later found to raise the level of GSH in the prostate epithelium of man. New data presented  at the July 13, 2003 meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research indicates that higher levels of total cysteine in plasma may predict a reduced risk for breast  cancer. This prospective investigation was conducted among 32,000 women in the Nurses Health study. The previously reported prostate cancer data appears then not to be  strictly gender-related as the antioxidant role of the cysteine – GSH system may also apply to breast cancer prevention.

 

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JOURNAL OF CYSTIC FIBROSIS,  VOL 2, ISSUE 4, DECEMBER 2003
27- IMPROVED GLUTATHIONE STATUS IN YOUNG ADULT PATIENTS WITH
CYSTIC FIBROSIS SUPPLEMENTED WITH WHEY PROTEIN
V Grey a , SR Mohammed b , AA Smountas b , R Bahlool b , LC Lands b
a The Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster Division, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
b The Department of Respiratory Medicine, McGill University Medical Center, Montreal Children’s Hospital,Montreal, Quebec, H3H 1P3, Canada


ABSTRACT –  Background: The lung disease of cystic fibrosis is associated with a chronic inflammatory reaction and an over abundance of oxidants relative to antioxidants. Glutathione functions as a major frontline defense against the build-up of oxidants in the lung. This increased demand for glutathione (GSH) in cystic fibrosis may be limiting if nutritional status is compromised. We sought to increase glutathione levels in stable patients with cystic fibrosis by supplementation with a wheybased protein.  Methods:  Twenty-one patients who were in stable condition were randomly assigned to take a whey protein isolate (Immunocal, 10 g twice a day) or casein placebo for 3 months. Peripheral lymphocyte GSH was used as a marker of lung GSH. Values were compared with nutritional status and lung parameters.  Results: At baseline there were no significant differences in age, height, weight, percent ideal body weight or percent body fat. Lymphocyte GSH was similar in the two groups. After supplementation, we  observed a 46.6% increase from baseline (P<0.05) in the lymphocyte GSH levels in the supplemented group. No other changes were observed. Conclusion: The results show  that dietary supplementation with a whey-based product can increase glutathione levels in cystic fibrosis. This nutritional approach may be useful in maintaining optimal levels of  GSH and counteract the deleterious effects of oxidative stress in the lung in cystic fibrosis. Author keywords: Glutathione, Cystic fibrosis; Whey


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MED. SCI. SPORTS EXERC., VOL. 37, NO. 9, PP. 1468-1473, 2005.
28- EFFECTS OF CYSTEINE DONOR SUPPLEMENTATION ON EXERCISEINDUCED BRONCHOCONSTRICTION
JM Baumann, KW Rundell, TM Evans, AM Levine
American College of Sports Medicine. Marywood University, Human Performance Laboratory, Scranton, PA


ABSTRACT –  Purpose: Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in resident airway cells may be important in bronchoconstriction following exercise. Glutathione (GSH) is  a major lung antioxidant and could influence pathological outcomes in individuals with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). This study examined the effects of  supplementation with undenatured whey protein (UWP) in subjects exhibiting airway narrowing following eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH), a surrogate challenge for  diagnosis of EIB. UWP is a cysteine donor that augments GSH production.  Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 18 EIB-positive subjects (age: 25.2  ± 9.01 yr; weight: 77.3  ± 18.92 kg; height: 1.7  ± 0.09 m) with post-EVH falls of  ≥ 10% in FEV received 30 g UWP (TX) or casein placebo (PL)/d. Subjects performed 6-min EVH challenges before and after 4 and 8 wk of supplementation. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) was measured serially before spirometry and at 1-wk intervals. Spirometry was  performed pre- and 5, 10, and 15 min postchallenge.  Results: Subjects exhibited significant mean improvement in postchallenge falls in FEB from 0 wk (-2.6  ± 12.22%) with TX  at 4 (-18.9  ± 12.89%, P<0.05) and 8 wk (-16.98 ± 11.61%, P< 0.05) and significant mean reduction in postEVH peak falls in FEF from 0 wk (-40.6  ± 15.28%) with TX at 4 (-33.1  ± 17.11%, P <0.01) and 8 (-29.7 ± 17.42%, P<0.05) wk. No changes in FEV or FEF were observed in the PL group at any time point. Mean eNO for PL and TX groups at 0, 4, and 8 wk (46.8  ± 31.33, 46.5  ± 35.73, 49.3 ± 37.12 vs 35.2 ± 26.87, 29.1 ± 17.26, 34.7 ± 21.11 ppb, respectively) was not significantly different.  Conclusions: UWP may augment pulmonary antioxidant capacity and be therapeutically beneficial in individuals exhibiting EIB, as postchallenge pulmonary function improved with supplementation. The lack of  significant change in eNO suggests that the pulmonary function improvements from UWP supplementation are independent of eNO. Author keywords: Asthma, inflammation, pulmonary function, whey protein, glutathione.


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PHIL. TRANS. R. SOC. B. 360, 2355-2372 (2005).
29- OXIDATIVE STRESS AND AGEING: IS AGEING A CYSTEINE
 DEFICIENCY SYNDROME?
W. Dröge,  
Division of Redox Physiology and Aging Research, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum,
Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany


ABSTRACT – Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced in biological tissues and play a role in various signaling pathways.  Abnormally high ROS concentrations cause oxidative stress associated with tissue damage and dysregulation of physiological signals.  There is growing evidence that oxidative stress increases with age.  It has  also been shown that the life span of worms, flies and mice can be significantly increased by mutations, which impede the insulin receptor signaling cascade.  Molecular studies  revealed that the insulin-independent basal activity of the insulin receptor is increased by ROS and downregulated by certain antioxidants.  Complementary clinical studies confirmed that supplementation of the  glutathione precursor cysteine decreases insulin responsiveness in the fasted state.  In several clinical trials, cysteine  supplementation improved skeletal muscle functions, decreased the body fat/lean body mass ratio, decreased plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor  α (TNF-α), improved immune functions, and increased plasma albumin levels.  As all these parameters degenerated with age, these findings suggest: (i) that loss of youth,  health and quality of life may be partly explained by a deficit in cysteine and (ii) that the dietary consumption of cysteine is generally suboptimal and  everybody is likely to have a  cysteine deficiency sooner or later.


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ANTIOXIDANTS & REDOX SIGNALING, 10:661-675 (2008)
30– ABERRANT INSULIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING AND AMINO ACID HOMEOSTASIS
AS A MAJOR CAUSE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN AGING
W. Dröge a)   R. Kinscherf   b). a)  Dept. Research & Development, Immunotec Inc., Vaudreuil, Quebec, Canada b) Dept. Anatomy & Developmental Biology, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany


ABSTRACT – The mechanisms leading to the increase in free-radical-derived oxidative stress in “normal aging” remained obscure.  Here we present our perspective on studies  from different fields which reveal a previously unnoticed vicious cycle of oxidative stress.    The plasma cysteine concentrations during starvation in the night and early morning  hours (the postabsorptive state) decreases with age.  This decrease is associated with a decrease in tissue concentrations of the cysteine derivative and quantitatively important antioxidant glutathione.  The decrease in cysteine reflects changes in the autophagic protein catabolism which normally ensures free amino acid  homeostasis during starvation.  Autophagy is negatively regulated by the insulin receptor signaling cascade, which is enhanced by oxidative stress in the absence of insulin.  This synopsis of seemingly unrelated processes reveals a novel mechanism of progressive oxidative stress in which decreasing antioxidant concentrations and increasing  basal (postabsorptive) insulin receptor signaling activity compromise not only the autophagic protein catabolism but also the activity of FOXO transcription factors, i.e. two  functions which were found to have an impact on lifespan in several animal models of aging.  In addition, the aging-related decrease in glutathione level is likely to facilitate  certain “secondary” diseaserelated mechanisms of oxidative stress.  Studies on cysteine supplementation show therapeutic promise.


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ANTIOXIDANTS & REDOX SIGNALING, 10:395-402, (2008)
31–CYSTEINE-RICH PROTEIN REVERSES WEIGHT LOSS IN LUNG CANCER PATIENTS RECEIVING CHEMOTHERAPY OR RADIOTHERAPY
R. Tozer, a)    P. Tai, b)     W. Falconer, c)   T. Ducruet, d)       A. Karabadjian, e)    G. Bounous, f)       J. Molson  f)    and W. Dröge f)   a)  Hamilton Regional Cancer Centre,  Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.  b)  Radiation Oncology, Allan Blair Cancer Center, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada,  c) Cancer Nutrition & Rehabilitation Program, Dept. of Oncology,  McGill University, Montreal, Quebec. Canada, d)  Boreal Primum Inc., Montreal, Quebec, Canada   e) Medscope Communications Inc., St. Laurent, Quebec, Canada   f) Immunotec Research Ltd. Vaudreuil, Quebec Canada.


ABSTRACT – Oxidative stress plays a role in the tumor-cytotoxic effect of cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy and also in certain adverse events.   In view of these  conflicting aspects, a double-blind trial over 6 months has been performed to determine whether a cysteine-rich protein (IMN1207) may have a positive or negative effect on the  clinical outcome if compared with casein, a widely used protein supplement low in cysteine.  Sixty-six patients with Stage IIIB-IV non-small cell lung cancer were randomly  assigned to IMN1207 or casein. Included were patients with a previous involuntary weight loss of ≥3%, Karnofsky status ≥70, and an estimated survival of > 3 months.   Thirty-five lung cancer patients remained on study at six weeks.   Overall compliance was not different between  treatment arms (42-44% or 13g/day).  The patients treated  with the cysteine-rich protein had a mean increase of 2.5% body weight while casein-treated patients lost 2.6% (P=0.049).  Differences in secondary end points included an  increase in survival, hand grip force and quality of life.  Adverse events were mild or moderate.  Further studies will have to show whether the positive clinical effects can be  confirmed and related to specific parameters of oxidative stress in the host.   


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IMMUNOLOGY. 172:151-156, (1986)
32–GLUTATHIONE AUGMENTS THE ACTIVATION OF CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES IN VIVO
W. Dröge, Christiane Pottmeyer-Gerber, Heike Schmidt, and Sabine Nick
Institut für Immunologie und Genetik, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg,

 

ABSTRACT – The activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in vivo was found to be augmented by glutathione if injected i.p. in the late phase but not in the early phase of the response.  The effect of glutathione possibly resembles the augmenting effect of 2- mercaptoethanol in lymphocyte cultures.


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JANA VOL. 11, NO. 1, (2008)
33-ORAL TOLERABILITY OF CYSTEINE-RICH WHEY PROTEIN ISOLATE IN AUTISM – A PILOT STUDY
Janet K. Kern a) , Bruce D. Grannemann, a)  Jimmy Gutman,  b) Muadhukar H. Trivedi a) a) University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas b) McGill University, Canada and Immunotec Inc. Montreal, QC Canada

 

ABSTRACT –  Purpose: To examine the tolerability of non-denatured whey protein isolate (NWPI) in children with autism.   Many children with autism are low in glutathione and  have higher levels of oxidative stress.  NWPI can raise glutathione levels and reduce oxidative stress.  However, anecdotal reports suggest that NWPI may be problematic in  children with autism because it contains cysteine and other sulfurated amino acids. Methods:  A 6-week open-label trial was conducted, supplementing 10 children with autism  or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 3-15 years of age, with NWPI (Immunocal®).  To measure possible side effects, procedures that examined the frequency, intensity, and  types of side effects, as well as behavioral measures, were completed at baseline, and at days 3, 14, 30 and 45. Results:  Seven of the ten children took the supplement over  the six-week trial and tolerated it well.  Two children discontinued after two weeks due to possible side effects: one due to gastrointestinal disturbance and one due to being  less responsive to parents.  Another child discontinued due to difficulty of administering the product. Conclusion:  This study suggests that NWPI can be used as a supplement  for this small population of children with autism without high rates of side effects, which means that further studies to determine its safety and efficacy in larger populations  might yield the same promising result.  Larger studies are planned to determine its efficacy in raising glutathione levels.


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PEDIATR BLOOD CANCER, 50:447-450 (2008)
34-CHILDREN’S ONCOLOGY GROUP (COG) NUTRITION COMMITTEE
Paul C. Rogers, MB ChB, MBA, 1*  Steven J. Melnick, MD, PhD, 2 , Elena J. Ladas, MS, 3   Jacqueline Hamilton, MD, 4    Jacques Baillargeon, PhD, 5   and Nancy Sacks, MS 6

1 British Columbia Children’s Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada,
2 Miami Children’s Hospital, Miami, Florida,  
3 Columbia University, Children’s Hospital of New York, NY,  
4 Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada,  
5 University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas,  
6 The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

 

Children’s Oncology Group (COG) Nutrition Committee was established to further the knowledge of nutrition  in children with cancer by education and conduct of clinical trials.  A survey of COG institutions revealed lack of conformity in evaluation and categorization of nutritional status,  and criteria for nutritional intervention.  The Committee subsequently established specific categories of malnutrition (Underweight and Overweight) based on ideal body weight  or body mass index.  An algorithm was developed as a guideline for  nutritional intervention as well as references and resources for determining estimated needs.  The Committee embarked on concepts for clinical trials of nutritional interventions.  The first pilot study, evaluating the feasibility of using an immunoneutraceutical precursor for glutathione production, has been completed.  The study showed weight gain and improvement in glutathione status.  A pilot trial of proactive enteral feeding for patients at high risk of malnutrition has commenced.  The Committee believes that nutrition is relevant to all aspects of cancer control.  The paucity of nutritional investigation in children with cancer needs to be rectified.  Key words: cancer, children; nutrition.  


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JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY & HEPATOLOGY 24:1045-1050 (2009)
35-OPEN-LABELED PILOT STUDY OF CYSTEINE-RICH WHEY PROTEIN ISOLATE
SUPPLEMENTATION FOR NONALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS PATIENTS
Taned Chitapanarux* Prasong Tienboon†, Suwalee Pojchamarnwiputh ‡ and Donrawee Leelarungrayub§ *Division of Gastrohepatology, Department of Medicine, † Division of  Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, ‡ Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, and § Department of Physical  Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.

 

Background and Aims:   Glutathione (GSH) depletion contributes to liver injury and development of steatohepatitis.  Undenatured cysteine-rich whey protein isolate has been  clinically proven to raise GSH in several patient groups.  The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with whey protein on patients with  nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).   Methods:  In an open-labeled clinical trial, 38 patients (18 male, 20 female; mean age 48 ± 14 years) with NASH confirmed by computed  tomography measurements and liver biochemistries were given with a daily dose of 20g whey protein isolate for 12 weeks. Results:  A significant reduction in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (64 ± 72 vs 46 ± 36, P=0.016) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (45 ± 49  vs 33 ± 18, P=0.047) were observed.  Plasma glutathione and total antioxidant capacity increased significantly at the end of study (53 ± 11 vs 68 ± 11, P< 0.05 and 1.26 ± 0.10  vs 2.03 ± 0.10,  P< 0.05).  Liver attenuation index improved from  -13.4 ± 11.1 to -9.7 ± 13.1 (P = 0.048).   Hepatic macrovesicular steatosis decreased significantly after 12 weeks of supplementation (33.82 ± 12.82  vs  30.66 ± 15.96, P=0.046).  Whey protein isolate was well tolerated.  No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions:  The results indicate that oral supplementation of cysteine-rich  whey protein isolate leads to improvements in liver biochemistries, increased plasma GSH, total antioxidant capacity and reduced hepatic macrovesicular steatosis in NASH patients.  The results support the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of this disease.


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PRESENTED AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AIDS;  INT. CONF. AIDS AUG. 7-12, 1994 (Abstract no. 421A).
36-ANTI-HIV AND ANTI-APOPTOTIC ACTIVITY OF THE WHEY PROTEIN      CONCENTRATE: IMMUNOCAL.
Baruchel S, Olivier R, Wainberg M. Montreal Children’s Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

 

OBJECTIVES: The in vivo glutathione (GSH) promoting activity of undenatured Whey protein concentrate (WPC) has already been demonstrated.  Here we demonstrate the anti  HIV and anti Apoptotic activity of a WPC product termed IMMUNOCAL and its relation with GSH synthesis.  METHODS:  IMMUNOCAL is produced in linear fashion in order to  maintain proteins in a non denatured form and to preserve their glutamyl cysteine residues. We tested the in vitro anti-HIV activity on cord blood mononuclear cells and MT 4 cells  by studying each of reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, p24 antigen production, and syncytium formation.  GSH was measured by spectrophotometric recycling assay.  Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry on PBMC from HIV infected individuals (cells were stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide) (n = 6). 

RESULTS:  An anti HIV activity was found at WPC concentrations between 100 micrograms/ml and 500 micrograms/ml.   Inhibition of syncytium formation occurred with a IC50 of 150 micrograms/ml.  PBMCs cultured with these WPC concentrations (N = 3) had a statistically significant increase in GSH synthesis when compared to untreated cells, 9.6 /-  1.5 vs 5.4 /- nmoles/10(7) cells, p = 0.01.  HIV infected PBMCs cultured in the presence of 100 micrograms/ml of WPC were less prone to die of apoptosis than untreated cells,  15% /- 2.6 vs 37% /- 2.4 p <0.001.  

CONCLUSION:  IMMUNOCAL (WPC) possesses antiviral and anti-apoptotic activities which may be related to its glutathione promoting activity.  A clinical trial is currently going on  with children with AIDS and wasting syndrome.


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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 16:1095-1100 (1996)
37-IN VITRO SELECTIVE MODULATION OF CELLULAR GLUTATHIONE BY A HUMANIZED NATIVE MILK PROTEIN ISOLATE IN NORMAL CELLS AND RAT MAMMARY CARCINOMA MODEL
Slyvain Baruchel & Ginette Viau
Department of Pediatrics and Oncology and Montreal Children’s Research Institute, McGill
University, 2300 Tupper Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3H 1P3

 
Abstract:  We report the  in vitro selective inhibitory activity of a humanized whey protein concentrate IMMUNOCAL TM on growth of mammary  carcinoma cells and Jurkat T cells in comparison to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  We related this inhibitory activity to a selective depletion of intracellular glutathione synthesis.  The use of humanized whey protein concentrate as a food supplementation may have direct implication in clinical trials with adjuvant chemotherapy. Glutathione (GSH) accounts for more than 90% of total intracellular non-protein sulfhydryl  and is critical in a variety of cellular defense functions including protection from toxic oxygen species and detoxification of various xenobiotics. Tumor cell GSH concentration may be among the determinant of the cytotoxicity of many chemotherapeutic agents and of radiation, and an  increase in GSH concentration appears to be at least one of the mechanisms of acquired drug resistance to chemotherapy. Therapeutic elevation of  normal cell GSH levels has also been investigated as a means to reduce the toxicity associated with a wide variety of compounds of both  endogenous and exogenous origin. GSH may be increased by different methods including delivery of L-Cystine, a rare limiting amino acid in GSH  synthesis.  This is difficult since cysteine is toxic, it is not transported efficiently into cells, and is oxidized spontaneously at neutral pH. Attempts  to cancer treatment based on modulation of GSH concentration in tumor cells must take into consideration the glutathione status and the rate of  GSH synthesis in these cells.  It is well known that rapid GSH synthesis in tumor cells is associated with high rates of cellular proliferation.   Depletion of tumor GSH  in vivo decreases the rate of cellular proliferation and inhibits cancer growth.  In practice it is difficult to reduce GSH sufficiently in a tumor  in vivo  without placing the normal tissue at risk.   Numerous studies have demonstrated that GSH can be differently  manipulated in normal versus tumor cell line.  Dependent upon the method of GSH manipulation protection could be demonstrated in normal but not  in tumor cell line. In this report we demonstrate that it is possible to selectively modulate in vivo GSH synthesis in normal cells compared to  cancer cells with a humanized Whey Protein Concentrate (HWPC) and that this selective GSH modulation has an impact on cells proliferation.


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FOOD CHEM TOXICOL. 44:574-578, (2006)
38-WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE PROMOTES THE PRODUCTION OF GLUTATHIONE (GSH) BY GSH REDUCTASE IN THE PC12 CELL LINE  AFTER ACUTE ETHANOL EXPOSURE.
Tseng YM, Lin SK, Hsiao JK, Chen IJ, Lee JH, Wu SH, Tsai LY.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung
81346, Taiwan;  Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung  80702, Taiwan.

Abstract:   Excessive ethanol consumption may increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which results in the damage of tissues,  especially the neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS).  The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) on the glutathione (GSH) status after acute ethanol exposure in the pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line.  In this study, we  assayed the cell viability, the percentage of lactate dehydrogenase released (% LDH released), the level of GSH, and the activity of GSH reductase (GRx).  The results showed that with the supplement of WPC, the cell viability displayed no significant difference after acute exposure of ethanol in groups with or without ethanol treatment.  The ethanol-induced cytotoxicity showed a slight decrease, and the level of GSH showed a significant  increase.  The activity of GRx significantly increased when 0.1, 10mg/ml of WPC was supplied.  In conclusion, these results suggest that WPC in a  moderate concentration should be a precursor agent to promote the production of GSH and will enhance the antioxidant capacity in the PC12  cell line.


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J AGRIC FOOD CHEM. 56:8141-8147 (2008)
39-EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL-INDUCED HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELL (PBMC) PRETREATED WHEY PROTEIN  CONCENTRATE (WPC) ON OXIDATIVE DAMAGE.
Tseng YM, Chen SY, Chen CH, Jin YR, Tsai SM, Chen IJ, Lee JH, Chiu CC, Tsai LY
Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Abstract:   Excessive alcohol consumption can induce apoptosis in a variety of tissues and influence the antioxidant status in peripheral blood  mononuclear cells (PBMC).  This paper investigates the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) pretreated in PBMC on the apoptosis and antioxidant status after the treatment of alcohol.  The results show that the percentages of apoptotic cells in the alcoholtreated group were higher  than those in the group without alcohol treatment.   Additionally, there was higher glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (GPx) activity when the PBMC  were treated with 300 mg/dL of alcohol.  With regards to the activity of GSH reductase (GRx), there was higher activity in the group pretreated with  WPC than in the group with the treatment of alcohol only. On the contrary, the levels of GSH were reduced after the treatment of alcohol, but there was a higher level of GSH in the group pretreated with WPC.  In this study, it was found that the increased level of GSH in PBMC might not be  attributed to the effect of GRx because there was still a higher level of GSH in the group with the treatment of WPC and BCNU (a GRx inhibitor) in  this study.  The results indicated that PBMC pretreated with WPC might ameliorate alcohol-induced effects such as imbalance of the antioxidant  status.


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J AGRIC FOOD CHEM 58:12729-12734  (2010)
40-EFFECTS OF WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE (WPC) ON THE DISTRIBUTIONS OF LYMPHOCYTE SUBPOPULATIONS IN RATS WITH EXCESSIVE ALCOHOL INTAKE.
Tseng YM, Tsai SM, Lin WS, Huang ZR, Lin CC, Yeh WH, Wu YR, Tsai LY.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Number 386, Ta-chung 1 st  road, Kaohsiung 81346  Taiwan..


Abstract:   To investigate the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) on antioxidant statuses and the lymphocyte subpopulations in the rats with  alcohol intake, the antioxidant statuses in the peripheral blood (PB) and the lymphocyte subpopulations in the PB, spleen, and bone marrow  (BM) of the rats fed with WPC (0.334 g/kg) and alcohol (6 g/kg) for 3 months were analyzed.  Results showed that the effects of WPC on the  glutathione peroxidase and glutathione in the PB, the T and B cells in the spleen, and the B cells in the BM were more apparent in the rats with alcohol intake; however, they are not apparent in the controls.  Taken together, our results indicated that the immunity of rats might be enhanced by  the increased antioxidant ability after WPC supplementation and the effects of WPC on the lymphocyte subpopulations were mainly in the  spleen and BM and not in the PB.


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